Pith Moromo

Cohort to Study Health Consequences of Food and Nutrition Insecurity During Pregnancy and Lactation

Sponsor:Northwestern University

Collaborator:Kenya Medical Research Institute

Information provided by (Responsible Party):Northwestern University

Brief Description

Pith Moromo is Luo for “enough to eat.” Pith Moromo 1 was designed as a formative, qualitative study in which in-depth interviews were conducted with pregnant and lactating women, household members, and key informants about the perceived causes and consequences of food insecurity during pregnancy and lactation. These interviews were used to inform Pith Moromo 2, a cohort study following 370 pregnant women of mixed HIV status (half HIV+, half HIV-) from their first ANC visit until 9 months post-partum.

study objective

The main objective of the study was to elucidate the pathways by which food and nutrition insecurity impacts maternal and infant health.


The study was clinic based and was conducted in 7 health facilities in Kisumu and Migori counties. A total of 370 pregnant women of mixed HIV status (In a ratio of 1:1) were enrolled. The inclusion criteria for enrolment was the women should have been receiving care at a government-supported antenatal clinics in Kisumu and Migori counties, the pregnancy should be not less than 7 months gestation age and intend to live in the area until their infant reaches at least 9 months of age. The clinic visits were as illustrated in the diagram below:

Data collected during the visits included; anthropometric measurements (including height, weight, MUAC, four sets of skinfolds, and body composition) of both the mother and the child, assessment of food security status, dietary diversity, stress and depression, infant diet, appetite and immunization status among others.

Current study progress

Currently data collection was completed and data analysis is on-going so far the following abstracts and manuscripts have been developed.

Abstracts developed

  • Relationship between Food Insecurity, HIV status, and Psychosocial Well-being among Pregnant Women. Pauline Wekesa; Natalie Krumdieck; Sera Young; Maricianah Onono.
  • Food Insecurity, but not HIV, is Predictive of Depression Scores among Pregnant Kenyan Women. Natalie Krumdieck, Pauline Wekesa, Maricianah Onono, Sera Young.
  • Just how much household water insecurity do pregnant Kenyan women of mixed HIV status experience? Natalie Krumdieck, Shalean Collins, Pauline Wekesa, Maricianah Onono, Sera Young.
  • Newly Diagnosed HIV is Associated with Lower Rates Of Gestational Weight Gain and Loss of Mid-Upper Arm Circumference among Pregnant Kenyan Women. Elizabeth Widen, Shalean Collins, Pauline Wekesa, Natalie Krumdieck, Maricianah Onono, Sera Young
  • Food insecurity and HIV-exposure are deleterious to infant cognitive development GO Boateng, M Onono, E Baughan, P Wekesa, SM Collins, SL Young
  • Biological and psychosocial determinants of sustained exclusive breastfeeding

among women of mixed-HIV status in western Kenya. SM Collins, EM Widen, MV Santoso, SL Martin, MK Hoke, EL Tuthill, P Wekesa, G Boateng, M Onono, SL Young